Group Cosmetics based on chemicals.

10 minute read

Can we use Data Science to find Cosmetics with similar chemical ingredients?

Shown below is the final grouping of Cosmetics based on their chemcial ingredients. Hover over any data point to see the details.

1. Introduction

In this post, I will show how we can use NLP and t-SNE - a simple Dimensionality Reduction technique, to group cosemetics based on their chemical ingredients. Shown in the image below are a list of chemical ingredients found at the back of each of the cosemetics products. It is really hard to interpret those ingredients unless you are a chemist. So, can we use Data Science to group Cosemetics based on their similarity?

In this notebook, we are going to create a content-based recommendation system where the ‘content’ will be the chemical components of cosmetics. Specifically, we will process ingredient lists for 1472 cosmetics on Sephora via word embedding, then visualize ingredient similarity using a machine learning method called t-SNE and an interactive visualization library called Bokeh. Let’s inspect our data first.</p>

# Import libraries
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
from sklearn.manifold import TSNE
from random import sample

# Load the data
df = pd.read_csv('datasets/cosmetics.csv')

# Check the first five rows
display(df.sample(5))

# Inspect the types of products
df['Label'].value_counts()
Label Brand Name Price Rank Ingredients Combination Dry Normal Oily Sensitive
277 Moisturizer TATA HARPER Retinoic Nutrient Face Oil 48 4.3 Visit the Tata Harper boutique 1 1 1 1 1
565 Cleanser CLINIQUE Fresh Pressed Renewing Powder Cleanser with Pu... 29 4.9 Maltodextrin , Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate , So... 1 1 1 1 1
355 Cleanser LA MER The Tonic 95 4.1 Declustered Water (-)/Aqua/Eau De-Structuree (... 1 1 1 1 1
6 Moisturizer DRUNK ELEPHANT Lala Retro™ Whipped Cream 60 4.2 Water, Glycerin, Caprylic/ Capric Triglyceride... 1 1 1 1 0
596 Treatment SUNDAY RILEY C.E.O. Rapid Flash Brightening Serum 85 3.9 Water, Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate, Squalane, PE... 1 1 1 1 1
Moisturizer    298
Cleanser       281
Face Mask      266
Treatment      248
Eye cream      209
Sun protect    170
Name: Label, dtype: int64

2. Focus on one product category and one skin type

There are six categories of product in our data (moisturizers, cleansers, face masks, eye creams, and sun protection) and there are five different skin types (combination, dry, normal, oily and sensitive). Because individuals have different product needs as well as different skin types, let's set up our workflow so its outputs (a t-SNE model and a visualization of that model) can be customized. For the example in this notebook, let's focus in on moisturizers for those with dry skin by filtering the data accordingly.

# Filter for moisturizers
moisturizers = df[df['Label'] == 'Moisturizer']

# Filter for dry skin as well
moisturizers_dry = moisturizers[moisturizers['Dry'] == 1]

# Reset index
moisturizers_dry.reset_index(drop = True, inplace = True)
moisturizers_dry.head()
Label Brand Name Price Rank Ingredients Combination Dry Normal Oily Sensitive
0 Moisturizer LA MER Crème de la Mer 175 4.1 Algae (Seaweed) Extract, Mineral Oil, Petrolat... 1 1 1 1 1
1 Moisturizer SK-II Facial Treatment Essence 179 4.1 Galactomyces Ferment Filtrate (Pitera), Butyle... 1 1 1 1 1
2 Moisturizer DRUNK ELEPHANT Protini™ Polypeptide Cream 68 4.4 Water, Dicaprylyl Carbonate, Glycerin, Ceteary... 1 1 1 1 0
3 Moisturizer LA MER The Moisturizing Soft Cream 175 3.8 Algae (Seaweed) Extract, Cyclopentasiloxane, P... 1 1 1 1 1
4 Moisturizer IT COSMETICS Your Skin But Better™ CC+™ Cream with SPF 50+ 38 4.1 Water, Snail Secretion Filtrate, Phenyl Trimet... 1 1 1 1 1

3. Tokenizing the ingredients

To get to our end goal of comparing ingredients in each product, we first need to do some preprocessing tasks and bookkeeping of the actual words in each product's ingredients list. The first step will be tokenizing the list of ingredients in Ingredients column. After splitting them into tokens, we'll make a binary bag of words. Then we will create a dictionary with the tokens, ingredient_idx, which will have the following format:

{ "ingredient": index value, ... }

# Initialize dictionary, list, and initial index
ingredient_idx = {}
corpus = []
idx = 0

# For loop for tokenization
for i in range(len(moisturizers_dry)):    
    ingredients = moisturizers_dry['Ingredients'][i]
    ingredients_lower = ingredients.lower()
    tokens = ingredients_lower.split(', ')
    corpus.append(tokens)
    for ingredient in tokens:
        if ingredient not in ingredient_idx:
            ingredient_idx[ingredient] = idx
            idx += 1

# Check the result
print("The index for decyl oleate is", ingredient_idx['decyl oleate'])
The index for decyl oleate is 25

4. Initializing a document-term matrix (DTM)

The next step is making a document-term matrix (DTM). Here each cosmetic product will correspond to a document, and each chemical composition will correspond to a term. This means we can think of the matrix as a “cosmetic-ingredient” matrix. The size of the matrix should be as the picture shown below. To create this matrix, we'll first make an empty matrix filled with zeros. The length of the matrix is the total number of cosmetic products in the data. The width of the matrix is the total number of ingredients. After initializing this empty matrix, we'll fill it in the following tasks.

# Get the number of items and tokens
M = len(moisturizers_dry)
N = len(ingredient_idx)

# Initialize a matrix of zeros
A = np.zeros((M, N))

5. Creating a counter function

Before we can fill the matrix, let's create a function to count the tokens (i.e., an ingredients list) for each row. Our end goal is to fill the matrix with 1 or 0: if an ingredient is in a cosmetic, the value is 1. If not, it remains 0. The name of this function, oh_encoder, will become clear next.

# Define the oh_encoder function
def oh_encoder(tokens):
    x = np.zeros(N)
    for ingredient in tokens:
        # Get the index for each ingredient
        idx = ingredient_idx[ingredient]
        # Put 1 at the corresponding indices
        x[idx] = 1
    return x

6. The Cosmetic-Ingredient matrix!

Now we'll apply the oh_encoder() functon to the tokens in corpus and set the values at each row of this matrix. So the result will tell us what ingredients each item is composed of. For example, if a cosmetic item contains water, niacin, decyl aleate and sh-polypeptide-1, the outcome of this item will be as follows. This is what we called one-hot encoding. By encoding each ingredient in the items, the Cosmetic-Ingredient matrix will be filled with binary values.

# Make a document-term matrix
i = 0
for tokens in corpus:
    A[i, :] = oh_encoder(tokens)
    i = i + 1
A.shape
(190, 2233)

7. Dimension reduction with t-SNE

The dimensions of the existing matrix is (190, 2233), which means there are 2233 features in our data. For visualization, we should downsize this into two dimensions. We'll use t-SNE for reducing the dimension of the data here.

T-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) is a nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique that is well-suited for embedding high-dimensional data for visualization in a low-dimensional space of two or three dimensions. Specifically, this technique can reduce the dimension of data while keeping the similarities between the instances. This enables us to make a plot on the coordinate plane, which can be said as vectorizing. All of these cosmetic items in our data will be vectorized into two-dimensional coordinates, and the distances between the points will indicate the similarities between the items.

# Dimension reduction with t-SNE
model = TSNE(n_components=2, learning_rate=200, random_state=42)
tsne_features = model.fit_transform(A)

# Make X, Y columns
moisturizers_dry['X'] = tsne_features[:,0]
moisturizers_dry['Y'] = tsne_features[:,1]
/Users/Shravan/anaconda3/envs/NLP/lib/python3.6/site-packages/ipykernel_launcher.py:6: SettingWithCopyWarning:
A value is trying to be set on a copy of a slice from a DataFrame.
Try using .loc[row_indexer,col_indexer] = value instead

See the caveats in the documentation: http://pandas.pydata.org/pandas-docs/stable/indexing.html#indexing-view-versus-copy

/Users/Shravan/anaconda3/envs/NLP/lib/python3.6/site-packages/ipykernel_launcher.py:7: SettingWithCopyWarning:
A value is trying to be set on a copy of a slice from a DataFrame.
Try using .loc[row_indexer,col_indexer] = value instead

See the caveats in the documentation: http://pandas.pydata.org/pandas-docs/stable/indexing.html#indexing-view-versus-copy
  import sys

8. Let’s map the items with Bokeh

We are now ready to start creating our plot. With the t-SNE values, we can plot all our items on the coordinate plane. And the coolest part here is that it will also show us the name, the brand, the price and the rank of each item. Let's make a scatter plot using Bokeh and add a hover tool to show that information. Note that we won't display the plot yet as we will make some more additions to it.

from bokeh.io import show, output_notebook, push_notebook, output_file
from bokeh.plotting import figure
from bokeh.models import ColumnDataSource, HoverTool
output_notebook()

# Make a source and a scatter plot  
source = ColumnDataSource(moisturizers_dry)
plot = figure(x_axis_label = 'T-SNE 1',
              y_axis_label = 'T-SNE 2',
              width = 500, height = 400)
plot.circle(x = 'X',
    y = 'Y',
    source = source,
    size = 10, color = '#FF7373', alpha = .8)
<div class="bk-root">
    <a href="https://bokeh.pydata.org" target="_blank" class="bk-logo bk-logo-small bk-logo-notebook"></a>
    <span id="1001">Loading BokehJS ...</span>
</div>
GlyphRenderer(
id = '1038', …)

9. Adding a hover tool

Why don't we add a hover tool? Adding a hover tool allows us to check the information of each item whenever the cursor is directly over a glyph. We'll add tooltips with each product's name, brand, price, and rank (i.e., rating).

# Create a HoverTool object
hover = HoverTool(tooltips = [('Item', '@Name'),
                              ('Brand', '@Brand'),
                              ('Price', '$@Price'),
                              ('Rank', '@Rank')])
plot.add_tools(hover)

10. Mapping the cosmetic items

Finally, it's show time! Let's see how the map we've made looks like. Each point on the plot corresponds to the cosmetic items. Then what do the axes mean here? The axes of a t-SNE plot aren't easily interpretable in terms of the original data. Like mentioned above, t-SNE is a visualizing technique to plot high-dimensional data in a low-dimensional space. Therefore, it's not desirable to interpret a t-SNE plot quantitatively.

Instead, what we can get from this map is the distance between the points (which items are close and which are far apart). The closer the distance between the two items is, the more similar the composition they have. Therefore this enables us to compare the items without having any chemistry background.

# Plot the map
output_file('cosmetics.html')
show(plot)

11. Comparing two products

Since there are so many cosmetics and so many ingredients, the plot doesn't have many super obvious patterns that simpler t-SNE plots can have (example). Our plot requires some digging to find insights, but that's okay!

Say we enjoyed a specific product, there's an increased chance we'd enjoy another product that is similar in chemical composition. Say we enjoyed AmorePacific's Color Control Cushion Compact Broad Spectrum SPF 50+. We could find this product on the plot and see if a similar product(s) exist. And it turns out it does! If we look at the points furthest left on the plot, we see LANEIGE's BB Cushion Hydra Radiance SPF 50 essentially overlaps with the AmorePacific product. By looking at the ingredients, we can visually confirm the compositions of the products are similar (though it is difficult to do, which is why we did this analysis in the first place!), plus LANEIGE's version is $22 cheaper and actually has higher ratings.

It's not perfect, but it's useful. In real life, we can actually use our little ingredient-based recommendation engine help us make educated cosmetic purchase choices.

# Print the ingredients of two similar cosmetics
cosmetic_1 = moisturizers_dry[moisturizers_dry['Name'] == "Color Control Cushion Compact Broad Spectrum SPF 50+"]
cosmetic_2 = moisturizers_dry[moisturizers_dry['Name'] == "BB Cushion Hydra Radiance SPF 50"]

# Display each item's data and ingredients
display(cosmetic_1)
print(cosmetic_1.Ingredients.values)
display(cosmetic_2)
print(cosmetic_2.Ingredients.values)
Label Brand Name Price Rank Ingredients Combination Dry Normal Oily Sensitive X Y
45 Moisturizer AMOREPACIFIC Color Control Cushion Compact Broad Spectrum S... 60 4.0 Phyllostachis Bambusoides Juice, Cyclopentasil... 1 1 1 1 1 2.775364 -0.274434
['Phyllostachis Bambusoides Juice, Cyclopentasiloxane, Cyclohexasiloxane, Peg-10 Dimethicone, Phenyl Trimethicone, Butylene Glycol, Butylene Glycol Dicaprylate/Dicaprate, Alcohol, Arbutin, Lauryl Peg-9 Polydimethylsiloxyethyl Dimethicone, Acrylates/Ethylhexyl Acrylate/Dimethicone Methacrylate Copolymer, Polyhydroxystearic Acid, Sodium Chloride, Polymethyl Methacrylate, Aluminium Hydroxide, Stearic Acid, Disteardimonium Hectorite, Triethoxycaprylylsilane, Ethylhexyl Palmitate, Lecithin, Isostearic Acid, Isopropyl Palmitate, Phenoxyethanol, Polyglyceryl-3 Polyricinoleate, Acrylates/Stearyl Acrylate/Dimethicone Methacrylate Copolymer, Dimethicone, Disodium Edta, Trimethylsiloxysilicate, Ethylhexyglycerin, Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer, Water, Silica, Camellia Japonica Seed Oil, Camillia Sinensis Leaf Extract, Caprylyl Glycol, 1,2-Hexanediol, Fragrance, Titanium Dioxide, Iron Oxides (Ci 77492, Ci 77491, Ci77499).']
Label Brand Name Price Rank Ingredients Combination Dry Normal Oily Sensitive X Y
55 Moisturizer LANEIGE BB Cushion Hydra Radiance SPF 50 38 4.3 Water, Cyclopentasiloxane, Zinc Oxide (CI 7794... 1 1 1 1 1 2.814905 -0.277909
['Water, Cyclopentasiloxane, Zinc Oxide (CI 77947), Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate, PEG-10 Dimethicone, Cyclohexasiloxane, Phenyl Trimethicone, Iron Oxides (CI 77492), Butylene Glycol Dicaprylate/Dicaprate, Niacinamide, Lauryl PEG-9 Polydimethylsiloxyethyl Dimethicone, Acrylates/Ethylhexyl Acrylate/Dimethicone Methacrylate Copolymer, Titanium Dioxide (CI 77891 , Iron Oxides (CI 77491), Butylene Glycol, Sodium Chloride, Iron Oxides (CI 77499), Aluminum Hydroxide, HDI/Trimethylol Hexyllactone Crosspolymer, Stearic Acid, Methyl Methacrylate Crosspolymer, Triethoxycaprylylsilane, Phenoxyethanol, Fragrance, Disteardimonium Hectorite, Caprylyl Glycol, Yeast Extract, Acrylates/Stearyl Acrylate/Dimethicone Methacrylate Copolymer, Dimethicone, Trimethylsiloxysilicate, Polysorbate 80, Disodium EDTA, Hydrogenated Lecithin, Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer, Mica (CI 77019), Silica, 1,2-Hexanediol, Polypropylsilsesquioxane, Chenopodium Quinoa Seed Extract, Magnesium Sulfate, Calcium Chloride, Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract, Manganese Sulfate, Zinc Sulfate, Ascorbyl Glucoside.']

Conclusion

This is a fine example of how we can apply simple Data Science techniques to improve our lives. If we like some product and we want to find similar products, then rather than taking people’s opinions, we can use actual data to answer that question.

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